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4 Tips for Establishing a Productive Organizational Culture

Productive Organizational Culture

Let us remember that organizational culture refers to the set of values, principles, norms, procedures. And behaviors that all members of the staff of an organization share equally. Regardless of their level of management of the organization chart of the company.

The mission, vision, and objectives of the company support this set of elements mentioned above, which in turn make it possible to unify the direction that the company should take.

Management must bear in mind that every time it hires a new employee, a human being is entering the company. And that including them in the organizational culture is key to productivity and a good work environment.

In a previous post, we said that the organizational culture defines the operation of the company on a day-to-day basis. And is tangible through the behaviors and work routines of the collaborators, which is complemented by the managerial work developed by the management and the supervision by the heads of each department.

It is not so easy to maintain the culture in the company. It is relatively easy to raise it but difficult to put it into practice. It is good to remember that a positive, purposeful, and collaborative culture will make your employees happier. And more satisfied to face the day-to-day challenges in the organization with the best attitude.

For this reason, today we bring you 4 tips to create and maintain a solid organizational culture in your company.

  1. Open culture:

Nobody anywhere knows everything, that’s an absolute truth. It is necessary that the organization has a strong team that supports each other at all times, that helps each other to solve problems together. And allows the participation of all members of the staff. Closed cultures that encourage exclusion seriously affect the productivity and competitiveness of employees and the company.

  1. Know how to listen:

All members of an organization have knowledge and contributions to share with the rest of their colleagues. Establishing a culture in which all members can speak when they need to while listening to their colleagues carefully and without interruption is essential to strengthening the work environment and teamwork.

  1. Diversity:

A robust team is made up of people with complementary skills, different personalities, contributions, expectations, and interests. Diversity in these fields is a key element for the cohesion of the entire working group. Different points of view help to find better solutions and alternatives in the office.

  1. Know how to communicate:

Communication is the basis of any relationship, in this case, work relationships. It is the fundamental vehicle so that the assimilation of the organizational culture by the collaborators is optimal. It depends on the communication processes and mechanisms established within the company that managers. And heads can adequately transmit the corporate principles, actions, values ​​, and goals that will define the culture of the organization.

Employees perform best when they are allowed to contribute their knowledge when they listen and allow themselves to be helped by their peers when they receive constructive feedback. And when their managers are clear and honest about their expectations. Turning transparency and feedback into the pillars of your organizational culture will be reflected in the performance of your employees.

In conclusion, the definition of organizational culture in organizations is the very reflection of what the company is and what it pursues. The main function of the organizational culture is the establishment of a unique corporate identity that can be transmitted to each employee. In addition to generating a commitment between the staff towards the company and vice versa.

The behavior, attitudes, and therefore the productivity and competitiveness of the members of the company depend on the organizational culture.

You may also like to read, 10 things about Japanese culture that will intrigue you

10 things about Japanese culture that will intrigue you

150 years have passed since the Kingdom of Italy and the Empire of Japan signed the Treaty of friendship and trade and Milan for the occasion, from 22 September to 29 January 2017, organized an exhibition at Palazzo Reale, Hokusai, Hiroshige, Utamaro. Places and Faces of Japan, which reconstructs, through the paintings, serigraphs, and illustrations of these artists, a culture, as distant to us as that of Japan. The themes it deals with are various: family, nature, landscape, animals, and female beauty.

  1. There are many in Japan ONSEN

Japan is a country with high seismic and volcanic activity and there are many thermal baths with natural hot waters linked to geothermal springs distributed throughout the territory. It often happens that it is outdoors, but there are also those in closed structures. They are not only a tourist attraction for those who want to relax and escape from the chaotic metropolis, the Japanese consider them important because they allow a “communion in nakedness” and allow you to get to know other people in a different and more familiar atmosphere.

In most cases, the onsen has separate areas for men and women, and costumes are not accepted because, according to a deep-rooted belief, everything that is not a naked body risks dirtying the water. Sometimes it is also forbidden to enter for people who are tattooed or who cannot cover their tattoo because it is too big. These drawings, in fact, are associated, because of their prerogative, to the Yakuza, their mafia. Some onsen even boasts special guests who can keep you company amidst the fumes of warm waters and snow: wild monkeys.

  1. The national sport is not football

There is two main sport of Japan, baseball, which was introduced by the Americans following their massive presence after the Second World War, and sumo with an ancient tradition. For baseball, there are two main professional leagues which are also flanked by teams linked to schools and university leagues. Among the other sports practiced and followed at a national level are volleyball, table tennis (yes, it is the technical name of ping-pong), basketball and golf.

  1. They have the (meteorological) forecasts for cherry blossom

Every year for the Japanese there is a magical period that can go from April to May in which you can enjoy the beauty of the spring flowering of cherry trees, the hanami. The real protagonists are the sakura, cherry trees in their ornamental variety, which color streets, gardens, and lakes pink It usually happens that many moves from cities to the most famous places in Japan where they can watch the show, admire nature, celebrate with a picnic. There are also forecasts, similar to meteorological ones, to understand when the flowers will bloom and how long their explosion will last.

  1. Their temples are hidden in the landscape

Japan has millennia-old religious traditions that are intertwined. There are many and spectacular, despite their discretion and simplicity, the Buddhist temples that dot the territory: they sprout in unthinkable places, are hidden among the trees in the woods, are surrounded by lakes with green waters, are in perfect communion with the landscape. Buddhism, then, coexists the Shinto philosophy, an ancient indigenous religion still rooted, which places at the center the cult of the ancestors and harmony with nature. These are the two main philosophies that imbue Japanese culture and represent its major aesthetic inspiration.

The Japanese since ancient times have attributed spiritual and sacred powers to the various elements of nature and for this, they have revered them as deities.

  1. They have arts called “of the ephemeral”

This is the name of those traditional practices that the Japanese feel are true forms of art, but which are destined to run out in a short time. Among these are the tea ceremony and ikebana, the art of arranging cut flowers according to particular rules inspired by the sense of harmony of the universe. These activities allow them, like real spiritual paths, to master the values ​​of Wabi, the beauty of austerity, and of Sabi, the elegance and serenity of a past time.

  1. Their theater is made of masks

One of the best-known artistic expressions of Japan is the no theater which was born in the fourteenth century and is still staged today. It is characterized by a particular slowness in the actions and by the protagonists whose face is camouflaged by typical masks that hide all types of facial expressions. The actors move with signs that always acquire codified and well-defined meanings and the roles are fixed, four to be precise. The stories always belong to five categories: there is the representation of divinities, the one about warriors, women, demons, and then the one that can juggle different themes. The accompaniment is performed by instruments such as the flute and drums.

  1. Their inspiration is nature

Japanese painting, and in general the whole world of the arts, always has a connection with nature and with the seasons, each of which is linked to different traditions that have their origins in the past. There are many artists who have dedicated themselves to the landscape, transforming it into a subject of pure contemplation that transmits serenity, peace, a sense of dream, and of the marvelous. The favorite subjects, in fact, return in the various eras and declined on different materials – silk, terracotta, paper -. In most cases, such as Hokusai, Hiroshige, Utamaro, these are scenes taken from legends, portraits of everyday life, expanses of the sea, mountainous landscapes, forests as far as the eye can see, riots of flowers.

  1. Their gardens are small miniatures that symbolize the world

Japanese gardens are miniatures that reproduce nature according to the principles of Shinto philosophy. Over time, they also suffered the influence of Buddhism and Hinduism. There are many legends related to their creation: according to tradition, in fact, their goal is to recreate the places inhabited by the gods. There are the eight perfect islands, the lakes, the legendary Mount Horai which symbolizes the idea of ​​a perfect world. Every single element of a Japanese garden has an abstract and highly stylized meaning.

They had, from the beginning, two main purposes, on the one hand, they were designed for the aesthetic pleasure and recreation of the emperors, and on the other, they were functional to meditation and contemplation. They can be of different types: there are those consisting of only rock and white sand, which indicates the sea, those with tea houses where the typical ceremony takes place, those where it is possible to follow a meditative itinerary.

  1. They love products that whiten the skin

There is a canon of beauty that is defined in Japanese BIHAKU, BI, beautiful, HAKU, white. In fact, the whiteness of the skin has always been associated in women with the concepts of purity and nobility and is contrasted with a darker complexion synonymous with the lower class. This idea of beauty has ancient origins, it has always been an element of seduction, and also for this reason there are many products on sale in Japan for skin whitening.

A particular woman: the geisha

The figure of the geisha was widespread in Japan, especially between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Today they still exist, but they are about to disappear. Theirs is a long story and in the beginning, in reality, the role was played by men. They were in fact “people in charge of the arts” who had the task of entertaining the great feudal lords with artistic performances and storytelling . From the 18th century their work was done by women. They have always distinguished themselves for particular characteristics: they wear elaborate hairstyles that leave the neck uncovered, considered one of the most sensual points in a woman, and they dye their face white to achieve the purest ideal of feminine beauty. Today their figure is often confused with that of a luxury courtesan.

  1. The kimono is a dress for all occasions

The kimono is the traditional dress of Japan that has a T shape, wide sleeves that can also reach the ground, and a tubular bust. It is worn by men and women and is usually paired with thong sandals that are worn with a specific sock type. The typical ones are usually made and decorated by hand and can have different decorative motifs that sometimes are also linked to the season – flowers, animals, elements of nature -. There are kimonos for various occasions, from the most formal to the most private and familiar ones. The most precious and elegant ones are in silk and their elegance is also given by the colors and the matching accessories.

You may also like to read: Pop culture: what is it and what do you eat with?

Pop culture: what is it and what do you eat with?

Pop culture facts

You have probably heard the term pop culture more than once. However, it takes more than just that to really know where it comes from and what perspectives it can be given in certain contexts.

This term was born in the 20th century and is used to define the characteristic social phenomena of an era. In other words, pop culture encompasses absolutely every element of daily life that may have an important meaning or that is representative; such as fashion, slang, customs, food, and even the most popular products such as movies and series. For this reason, pop culture is constantly changing and evolving.

What is Pop culture?

The mass media have played an important role in the development of this concept. This is due to the fact that people obtain direct influence from the media environment to adopt certain fashions or customs.

It is through popular culture that the members of society establish behavioral ideals and endow them with a common identity.

Be fashionable

Tim Delaney, an American sociologist, mentions in his article Pop Culture: An Overview that sports and television are currently two of the elements of popular culture that are most consumed and those with the greatest staying power.

Similarly, Delaney makes a contradictory observation when he mentions that the source of popular culture is often individuality. The also professor at the State University of New York indicates that if a person decides not to follow fashions, it is not bad. On the contrary, this unique style can inspire other people and become popular.

All the time we are exposed to new trends, they are the same for everyone. However, today there is freedom for everyone to internalize them according to their preferences and personality. There will always be those who are for or against, those who follow the rules, and those who defy them.

In other words, we live in a stage where breaking schemes is fine. Therefore, day by day and with the help of the Internet, we can visualize lifestyles, challenges, opinions, or simple ways of acting. The key is to channel this power that new technologies give us, in things that have a positive impact on society.

Now, you could say that they are the celebrities, the so-called influencers and even the fictional characters currently represent all these things that we adopt as part of pop culture. But who were its representatives in the beginning?

The 60s

Without a doubt, the 60s were a decade characterized by rebellion and social changes. During this revolutionary era, great fashion icons emerged and different styles of clothing were beginning to be adopted, including flared pants, prints, vibrant colors, and controversial miniskirts.

Years later, other icons emerged that set trends and styles such as Michael Jackson and Madonna. Both singers from the ’80s are remembered for their tailored costumes and wacky hairstyles. In addition, beyond their physical appearance, their musical products raised the pop genre as one of the favorites by the public to this day.

Michael Jackson continues to be remembered for his dance moves, his Thriller jacket, and his sequined white glove. Madonna, for her part, remains a feminist and liberal icon.

Pop Art, a lifestyle

Pop Art, more than art, is the result of a somewhat particular lifestyle. The plastic manifestation of a society that is becoming more and more technological, democracy, fashion and mass consumption.

The objects cease to be unique to be produced in series. Industrial objects, posters and other articles of commercial consumption become the main subjects. What had hitherto been considered unworthy of art was described: advertising, illustrations, magazines, etc.

In this art, standard furniture, dresses and tin cans are taken to a higher level, emerging a naked and mechanized style. Within his works, the unique and the expressive goes to the background, leaving the impersonal and the subtle conformity of society in focus.

Britney Spears and her schoolgirl style

As Madonna’s successor, Britney Spears appears in the 90s, who positioned herself as a pop princess and wowed her audience with her schoolgirl style and seductive dances. This look prevails to date as one of the most iconic of the decade and has been recreated in various entertainment products.

This same schoolgirl style became so popular that to this day it is still used in different variations by celebrities like Ariana Grande. In the same way, it was a very popular fashion in the episodes of the television series Gossip Girl.

Along with Britney Spears, the MTV channel broadcast the Backstreet Boys videos with singles like I Want It That Way and Everybody.

The arrival of the year 2000

Finally, a new millennium has arrived that brings with it new eras marked by controversy and mass communication.

Britney Spears, meanwhile, changes the schoolgirl look for a shaved head and romantic songs are displaced by the Emo Era that marks the beginning of the first decade of the 2000s. This new era comes with styles that predominate the use of black, side bangs, Vans tennis shoes, face piercings and dark makeup on both women and men.

However, little by little technology accelerates the way in which trends and new styles emerge. It may be that today what was popular a month ago is no longer so relevant, anyone can become an icon of the time and influence society with their ideas.

Today’s trends are mainly marked by originality and the search for the common good. Imagine that in 50 years someone investigates about pop culture in 2020, probably the results showed that it was a time marked by the fight against the coronavirus (which although it sounds strange, is also part of popular culture), the search for the justice against outrageous conditions (such as abuses by police forces) and care for the environment.

The importance of culture in student life and in everyday life

culture in student life and in everyday life

It is true that culture is very important in human life. We are not going to “spread” you the philosophy course of your high school years. On the contrary, we are going to show you that different aspects of culture are important in our daily student life.

Culture: what is it?

Culture is a body of knowledge that we acquire throughout our life. This knowledge comes from different fields whether in the academic or historical context. Culture includes, for example, philosophy, sociology, mathematics or even the dates which have marked history designating important events and which have built our current world. This culture can also result from the discovery of the world and its treasures.

Culture at school

Throughout your schooling, teachers will provide you with the knowledge that will be useful to you in everyday life but also in your professional life. These are the basic concepts to be assimilated in order to be able to evolve in society and develop one’s intelligence.

The culture used in the higher courses

Culture is very important in the life of students today. It is essential! Indeed, when you decide to integrate college or university training, you are asked to take a general culture test. This test is not based on course elements, on the contrary, it is based on elements having a link with history, the country, the world, and current events. Schools are using this test more and more because it allows determining if the person is curious and is informed enough to be able to form their own opinion and thus develop a solid speech.

Culture: a way to differentiate yourself from others

As a student, culture allows you to differentiate yourself from others. Indeed, a more cultured person often presents a more detailed answer with arguments drawn from current facts or not and can thus give his point of view in a more fluid and justified way. This capacity for reflection and knowledge association is greatly appreciated by teachers and the world of work. We can assure you that this will open doors for you to more important positions in your professional life and to reach your dream.

Culture: a social and enriching aspect

A rewarding aspect

Culture also makes it possible to discover the world. All lifestyles, values ​​, and beliefs are different in different countries. This allows us to know how they are living, what is important to them and what is not, their worries, their fears, and how they see their future. This information will be beneficial for you to adapt. And accommodate your speech according to the person in front of you. In addition, it will help you have a new outlook on the world which may be different from that of others.

A social aspect

Culture is not only effective in gathering knowledge, it is also a means of bringing people together. This aspect is very visible in student life as institutions increasingly promote diversity. It is synonymous with “good living together” and better development of society.

To conclude, culture is necessary and beneficial for oneself and for others. It’s up to you to show curiosity and maintain it as best you can.

The Power of Dance – Only Dancers Can Understand

The Power of Dance

All those who, in some way, are related to dance understand the title of this article perfectly. Because when we speak of “power” we speak of an inexplicable sensation that makes you move to the rhythm of the music.

It is not a power related to victory or achieving a superior position over others, it has nothing to do with that type of power. We talk about POWER over yourself.  

An internal force that when you start dancing begins to grow and is capable of making yourself feel important, unique, and special, and that that feeling depends only on you and no one else, is sensational and multiplies that power by a thousand.

The gift of dance

When you are 5 years old and your mother «points you to dance» you are not aware of the beautiful gift she is giving you.

But without a doubt, at that moment what you do love is your pink jersey, your pink sneakers, your pink skirt, your pink hooks, your pink half points (which you lose two or three times a year) and your pink socks…. everything is perfectly pink, your paradise. And there it all begins.

In the beginning, it is a simple game that consists of attending class dressed in your favorite color, meeting people who also love pink, making your mother cry at every festival where you dance with your school, and the collection of videos of « the girl dancing ».

And it is that, in that first stage of “work” in which it seems that you “do nothing” in class, your body and your mind are receiving a thousand stimuli that are making that beautiful power grow within you.

The decision to keep dancing

When you are old enough to decide that you keep dancing because you like it, that power is already uncontrollable.

So it is your mother who sometimes regrets having signed you up because she has to pick you up Monday, Wednesday, and Friday to dance class just at the time of starting to make dinner or the beginning of the soccer game and the “weekends” at Marta’s house because you have all been to rehearse.

She is still not aware of the nice gift she has given you. And then you start saying the wonderful phrase:

“I CAN’T, I HAVE DANCE.”

– Let’s go to the cinema? -I can’t have a dance.

Are we going out on Friday? – I can’t, I have a dance on Saturday morning. 

And the thing is, that “I can’t” is the “I can’t” that is the least difficult for you to say in the whole world, because half an hour before rehearsal you shower (although yes, not at all because you’re going to have to shower again when you come back ) and you dress in dance clothes, even if it means going out into the street dressed like this (it seems very normal to us) and with a smile, you go out whistling to rehearsal.

And then, you realize that you have traded the paradise of pink for the elegance of black.

Dancing as a way of life

You get to rehearsal and the music starts. Just by warming up, the magic begins. Something rises from head to toe and invades your entire body. You control it and you are capable of everything, and if not, you know that with work you will achieve it.

You evade the world and let yourself go, and then nothing is more important: not an argument with your boyfriend, not work, not your insecurities … NOTHING.  It is the only way you have for your mind to put everything aside and that it is only important to feel, and if that is not power, let God come down and feel it.  

100 rehearsals, 50 anger from the choreographer, 20 frustrations with yourself, 10 torn socks, 5 pulls on the muscle, and 2 tensions with dance friends (because sharing passions makes friends, not partners), the day to dance arrives.

The stage, your best and your worst enemy

And that day, for some of us, it looks like a “mini” pre-menstruation depression: you don’t want to eat, you can’t sleep, your belly hurts, you don’t want to make you dizzy and you wonder why am I getting into this? ? A strange mix between illusion – desire and terror – nerves take hold of you.

You pack your performance clothes while you mentally review the dance pieces and run away from home insisting, 4 to 10 times to your mother, that she is not late.

You’re ready and even though your belly hurts from nerves and you can’t stop skipping with your dance friends when the music plays, you take a deep breath and that power returns. You go on stage feeling beautiful, you look for your mother in the audience, you look at each other and that’s when you both understand the beautiful gift she gave you when you were 5 years old.

And there it does not matter whether you are dancing at the Paris Opera than at your school festival, because the power you feel over you is exactly the same.

Shake Up Your Life – Try Something New This Week

Shake Up Your Life

Variety is the spice of life, so why not shake up your life and enjoy some great health benefits by changing your usual routine and introducing some interesting new elements? Even small changes can help to break us out of a rut and enjoy fresh experiences. Our ideas will get you started.

Start Your Day with Meditation

Meditation, mindfulness, gratitude, awareness – call it what you will, but this simple art form is taking the world by storm. Fans claim that by taking a little time each day to disconnect from the frenetic modern world, and instead concentrating on the here and now, you feel happier, more grounded more alert, and more ‘present’. There is a huge range of different methods and approaches to gaining this calm and awareness. Why not simply start the day by listening to your breathing for five minutes and clearing your thoughts? This peaceful start to the day will set the tone far better than the usual alarm and mad dash.

Get Up and Move

Even if you don’t have time to exercise formally, you can keep fit by moving. Instead of sitting down, use a standing desk. Take small walks around the office and around the block periodically. Stand up and sit down from your chair several times to strengthen those legs. Instead of looking for shortcuts, find ways to bring physical movement into your daily life.

Spice Up Your Sex Life

If your love life is getting a bit stale, then it could be time to re-explore what you like and what turns you on.

Juice Up Your Nutrition

The health world is abuzz with the power of juicing. Grab a stick or jug blender and experiment with vegetable and fruit juices for a powerful nutritional punch that leaves you healthy, energized, and feeling great. It’s a fun and easy way to shake things up.

Why should we preserve our traditions?

preserve our traditions

From the time children are young, there must be family traditions where things are regularly done as a family. These things can be behavior patterns, leisure activities, or eating together. Family traditions can be as simple as talking during the day or at dinner about how the day has gone or elaborate activities on holidays.

Family traditions help children feel secure, but as children get older, they will more likely want to spend less time with family and more time with friends. Having this happen is a healthy part of growing children, but keeping family traditions is a great way to keep the family together.

Why should we preserve our traditions?

If you create meaningful traditions, your child will likely continue to do those traditions, thanks to how good it will make him feel when he becomes an adult. You need to consider the creation and maintenance of family traditions for the following very important reasons.

1. Family traditions give your adolescent identity

Family traditions will help your child create his own identity and identify himself in this society. It is good for adolescents to feel and know that they belong to a place when they are trying to find out who they are, which is mainly at this age. A family that encourages teens to be part of it with traditions provides a solid foundation for teens to define themselves.

2. Beautiful memories are created for a lifetime

Family traditions create precious memories for a lifetime. The rituals established by the family are things that your child will be able to remember as he grows with a lot of feeling. Whether it’s going to eat at Grandma’s house every Sunday or picking potatoes in Grandpa’s garden. Your memory may be going camping together every summer … but those family traditions will provide positive emotions. It will lead to a great family bond and beautiful memories forever.

3. Great values ​​are transmitted to adolescent children

Family traditions help parents transmit values ​​to their children. For example, you will have more time to model family values ​​with your teenager. You will be promoting a better family bond. You will show your children what is important to you and practice a good role model. The traditions you choose in your family will say a lot about what is important to you, like spending time together as a family.

4. Provide a sense of belonging to adolescents

Family traditions give each member of the family a great sense of belonging. Being part of a family is much more than living under the same roof or having the same last name… being a family means having affectionate relationships and strengthening family ties. Since family traditions are things that are done as a family, relationships will be strengthened and everyone will have a sense of belonging that will make them feel more united with the rest of the family.

5. Helps them to have good emotional health

Teenagers face difficult problems that can make them feel bad. Family traditions provide good emotional health by allowing them to feel secure and emotionally stable. They will know that they have a family to turn to and that they will always be there to help you. This will take away a lot of stress and anxiety from adolescence. They will feel loved and protected at all times, things necessary for good emotional health.

How to reinforce the cultural identity in the town?

Knowing where we come from as a local society to value what we are and strengthen collectively is a fundamental key to preserving a people’s cultural identity. Below we break down those factors that reinforce identity:

Enhancement of collective memory

Collect information on the collective ideology, valuing the elders of the community as a source of knowledge and essence of identity.

Know the why of traditions and folklore.  Knowing why the festivities are held in a certain way, their symbols, and what they represent at the community’s collective level is essential to value, protect, and defend them over time.

Cultural identity in the educational system

It is essential to work on cultural identity at school, where the little ones know the reason for the holidays and live them as moments of joy and devotion of the community and feel honored to receive such an important inheritance.

Promotion and dynamization of cultural days

They deepen the dissemination and avoid the loss of traditions both for those who live in the towns and those who approach the population and who do not understand why the traditions.

Social contribution

The human being is social by nature and needs tribute moments both at the family level and at the collective level. Many patron saint festivals have figures such as butlers, deputies, queens of the festivities, miss or mister that are important personally. It reinforces the meaning of belonging to the town or community.

How British children start their primary education?

British children start their primary education

Officially, children start school at 4 years old at a level called: Reception. However, the British government subsidizes 15 hours per week for children from 3 years old in private kindergartens or state schools. However, compulsory education only begins until children are 5 years old, in first grade. How British children start their primary education?

How British children start their primary education?

At the end of grade 6, at age 11, students have to take important exams called GCSE – General Certificate of Primary Education, which are commonly required for work in the UK. Then they can choose to drop out of school or continue studying to take other exams ( A-Levels or alternative) and with this power to gain entry to a higher education institute or university.

Between the ages of 5 to 11, primary school education is compulsory, but compulsory education is gradually established under the law: Education and Skills Act 2008. This came into effect in 2013 for the students up to 13 years old, and from September this year, all will have to study until their 18th birthday.

What are the admission criteria and how much do I have to pay?

There are two systems, one state and one private:

The state education system is free and is applied through the borough where you live. Certain admission criteria are different for each school. Still, in general, the district gives priority to children who have a sibling who is already studying in it. Students with disabilities, if they have previously studied in a private school and religious schools give priority to students of the same faith.

After submitting the positions with these criteria, if the number of applicants exceeds the available spaces, the next criterion is the distance in a straight line from the school to the student’s home. In this way, each school’s coverage area varies according to the available places and how many children apply each year.

In the primary educational system, parents must contribute a monetary sum that differs from school to school. The admission criteria are also different in each school, but usually, there is a process of interviews, forms, and visits that must be followed. About 7% of all English children and 18% of students over 16 years of age study are in private schools.

What are the school hours?

The day begins at 8:45 am, with a break in the morning, lunchtime at noon, and ends at 3 pm At an additional cost. Some schools offer Breakfast Club, which begins at 7:45 am until the day starts, and After-school Club that starts at 3:10 pm and ends at 6 pm.

Do they have to wear a uniform?

Yes, in almost all state and private schools, students have to wear a uniform. The advantage is that uniforms in state schools are standardized and basic garments are available cheaply in many supermarkets.

What is the number of children in each class?

By law, each class must have a maximum of 30 children in each class. On average the number in primary school is 27 children, and in secondary school, it is 20 students per class. Should my child attend school all year long? What if we want to go on vacation during a student period?

The system is very strict regarding the child’s punctuality and absence from school. Parents can be fined for taking children on vacation during the academic year. Any absence and delay in arriving to class are monitored, following a protocol in which the local authorities can intervene.

London is one of the cities with the highest demand. Many parents look for a location that allows them to be in  ​​a reputable school coverage area with an excellent report from OFSTED (Office for Standards in Primary Education, Children’s Services and Skills). It is the organization that is responsible for investigating and regulating schools in England.

My husband and I do not choose where we live because we never really think about it because of the schools. Little by little, we have known the area and recently, we made the first visit to a primary school, which has been recommended by other parents in the neighborhood. The truth is that we liked it a lot and we hope to be lucky that our children are accepted because we are very on the edge of the coverage area this year. In case of not being accepted, we have another option that would also be good for us, but again we are very on the coverage area’s edge. If these two options are denied we will be in serious trouble.

What did the Mayans wear and how they developed?

Mayans wear and how the developed

The Mayan civilization has inhabited parts of America, especially Mexico, for many years. Today there are still tribes that keep all their features and characteristics. It was a civilization dedicated to agriculture. Hence their clothing led to such activity. In case you even don’t know and would like to learn more about this town, we explain how Mayans did develop and what did the Mayans wear.

What did the Mayans wear and how?

The Mayan women wore skirts, usually long and ample cotton shirts covered with bandanas to cover their shoulders. Many of these shirts were embroidered with flowers and cheerful colors.

  1. The Mayan men wore special pants that they called “patí” with the bare chest. Always adorned with colors and embroidery giving a touch of joy to your garments.
  2. The much richer nobility wore many garments and embroidered with stones and feathers on their clothes. Also, they wore large belts, headdresses, sandals, and all kinds of luxurious accessories that distinguished them from the lower classes.
  3. They used to wear many ornaments on the head, to give color to the hair: scarves, headbands, hats, conical caps, etc.
  4. The higher classes added jewelry and gold to their accessories with which they always adorned themselves at any time of the day. They were well known for this particularity.
  5. In special moments when they celebrated and celebrated something, they used to expand the use of jewelry and their clothing as a show of reverence. In this way, they increased the use of gold, jewelry, and everything they had at hand.

You can get more information about it in any American history book.

How the Mayans developed in the world?

Mayan society was of a state type: the political-social organization of the Maya was complex, articulated and (as often in ancient and medieval societies) centered on the figure of a king, who was a king-priest and consequently, the form of government it was of theocratic type.

Mayan society was made up of three main classes:

At the head of each city-state was a king who has attributed almost divine powers. His highest honorary title was “halach huinic ” (the real man) and his absolutism was consciously accepted law. The halach hunuic was considered a personification of the sun and his life and death symbolically represented the astral cycle. As a child, he prepared himself for the difficult task of representing the very high dignity he would be entrusted with. For the Maya, the title of king was handed down from father to son.

Since he was a child, the future sovereign was subjected to care and attention that today we would not hesitate to define cruel: his skull was flattened, his nose reshaped, his face tattooed, his nose and earlobes adorned with precious stones. From the earliest days of his birth, the head was placed between two wooden planks tied together so that under constant pressure, the skull flattened and became wider. According to the Mayan religion, the gods gave a more noble air and made the heads more suitable for receiving loads to be carried.

  • The middle class:

The middle class was made up of officials, warriors, artisans, merchants (better at calculation than writing), artists, architects, who lived near the civic and religious nucleus where the ruling class resided. The traders exchanged necessities such as wax, salt, rubber, flint, but also superfluous objects or products such as honey, cinnabar, unworked stones, gold, and silver, feathers, jaguar skins, pottery, and tobacco. The exchanges took place through barter or payment with cocoa beans, beans, or shells.

  • The common man:

The common man (who was the most numerous class of society) was placed at the social ladder base. This devoted its forces to work in the fields and the construction of monumental buildings and roads. The “Plebei”, also called “jaiba – uinicob ” that is inferior to men, living on the city’s outskirts in small groups of huts near the agricultural land. These houses were rectangular, built with half-timbered walls, mud, and thatched roofs. The Jaiba -Uinicob led a very hard life; they spent part of their day working in the fields and gave a good part of the harvest to the nobles.

  • The slaves:

Slaves and prisoners of war were considered outside society and could be more easily sacrificed to the gods.

Religion

Religion was a very important element of daily life and for centuries, the Maya were engaged in building monuments and palaces in honor of nature gods who favored their happiness. For example, very famous are the pyramids that were erected for the sun god, which are very similar to those found in Egypt and Mesopotamia, which still raises many questions among scholars.

The Maya thought that their world was an interlude between the Heaven of the Divinities and Hell, home to frightening monsters that brought drought and famine. Therefore, the gods had to be propitiated every day with rituals and offerings that favored divine benevolence and the arrival of rains, a fundamental element for life.

Australian aborigines: names of peoples and their customs

Australian Aborigines have a great role in Australian culture. There are many people, both residents of the country and foreign tourists, who are interested in learning more about the legacy of these peoples.

For this reason, we want you to know more about Australian culture with this article on Australian aborigines, the names of peoples, and their customs. Learn all about them: Australian Aboriginal societies, religion, and symbols.

Who are the Australian Aborigines

The Australian Aborigines are descendants of what were the first people who lived in Australia. Their societies have remained in existence in Australia throughout time-defying technological advancements, European colonization, and any other challenge towards modernization.

Australian Aborigines are classified, along with the Islanders Torres Strait as the indigenous territories of Australia, Tasmania, and nearby islands. In total, its population amounts to about 2.4% of Australia’s total population today.

The Aboriginal culture is one of the oldest still remains alive on Earth. This developed in an autarkic way, which gave rise to a wide range of languages ​​and cultures with common aspects.

Names of Australian Aboriginal People and Their Customs

Within the aboriginal culture, we can differentiate more than 400 Australian aboriginal peoples. Each of them located in a different geographical area and with its own cultural features. Here are the main Australian Aboriginal tribes or peoples :

  • Koori and Guringai: They are located in the southwest of the country, New Wales and Victoria, and like most of the towns that will appear below, the Koori and Guringai tribes base their economy on hunting, cultivation, and the subsequent gathering of fruits.
  • Noongar – Originally divided into 13 different tribes, today most of the culture of the Noongar people, located in southern Western Australia, has been lost.
  • Anangu: this town is located in the northern part of South Australia and in the adjoining parts of North Australia and Western Australia. It is a purely oral culture that is still practiced by about 4,000 Anangus living in small communities.
  • Palawah – Located in Tasmania, this group has subdivisions. Unfortunately, most of the indigenous languages ​​of Tasmania were lost. However, efforts are currently underway to reconstruct one of the languages.
  • Arunta: The Arunta, Arrente, Arrernte, or Aranda are a tribe from the north-central part of the country that lives in the surroundings of the MacDonnell mountain range. The Arunta are divided into 6 subgroups, which in turn are divided into small clans protected by an authoritarian system focused on marriages between families or clans. Polygamy and widespread homosexuality also stand out from this group.
  • Yolngu: The inhabitants of the Yolngu people live in Arnhem Land, in the northeast of Australia. Some communities of this tribe have converted their previously land-based economies to exploiting the sea with the acceptance and use of specialized technology, such as canoes, which have allowed them to improve their hunting activity at sea.

Other Aboriginal tribes of Australia

  • Murri: Australian aboriginal town located in the state of Queensland.
  • Yapa: located in the territory of the central northwest.
  • Yamatji: located in central Western Australia.
  • Nunga: located in South Australia.
  • Wangkai: located in the Golden Fields of Western Australia.

Australian Aboriginal religion

Contrary to what the first Europeans who studied them assumed, Australian Aborigines have spiritual beliefs . In fact, these beliefs, based on dream times and various forms of Christianity, are essential in your daily life and in social relationships.

There is an enormous diversity of rites and cults and all groups share a common vision of the world. Instead of focusing on what lies beyond death, the Aborigines focus on the “before”, what they call the time of the dream or Altjeringa.

The aborigines consider that it was during El Sueño that the landscape that can be seen today was formed. Trees, stars, lakes, mountains, etc .; every formation of nature was created by ancestral spirit totem beings like man-kangaroos or woman-birds that inhabited the dream age.

The aborigines consider that the same spirits that reside in them do so in animals, plants, lakes, rocks, etc., so man is not considered above any other being. Upon dying, spirits leave earthly bodies and return to their spiritual existence. Thus, for the aborigines, everything is related to the natural environment and to past and future generations.

These beliefs help these peoples to face the circumstances of life and to maintain a strong bond with nature , which forms the basis of their vision of the world and their work in it. Finally, it is important to highlight the sacred place of the Australian aborigines: the rock formation of Uluru , also called Ayers Rock . This place has been declared a natural World Heritage Site since 1989 by UNESCO, and a cultural site since 1994.

Symbols of Australian Aborigines

The Aboriginal art typically associated with this time of sleep, totemic representations and storytelling. Female forms and X-ray art are widely used, for example, where the bones and organs of the represented beings can be appreciated.

It is carried out through a wide possibility of means and techniques :

  • Rock engravings
  • Fixed stroke technique
  • Colored tip paint
  • Bark painting
  • Aerial landscape painting
  • Sheet painting
  • Sand painting
  • Woodcarving
  • Stone carving
  • Sculpture
  • Ceremonial clothing

This art has evolved over the years to become contemporary aboriginal art. The Australian aboriginal symbols used today have, in general, and depending on the context, the same meaning in all Australian territories, although similar symbols in their monochrome may have a different meaning depending on the tribe where they are made.